Women in the war
In November 1861 Julia Ward Howe wrote the lyrics for ‘The Battle Hymn of the Republic’. It was first published in the Atlantic Monthly in February 1862. It became sung to the words of ‘John Brown’s Body.
|Robert E. Lee|
‘My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union. It is not either to save or destroy Slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that’.Jefferson Davis also implicitly denied that the war was about slavery. He asserted that it was a war to protect the right of a state to secede and to defend itself against a tyrannous majority. Yet ‘states rights’ had only evolved as a doctrine because of slavery. Without slavery it is unlikely that Virginia, the state that had done so much to create the Union, would have seceded. Would the war have been fought if slavery had not existed?
|Chief Justice Taney|
‘had for more than a century been regarded as …so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect’.Very controversially he also ruled that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional since it deprived citizens of their property in slaves. This meant that Congress had no power to exclude slavery from a territory. As the Missouri Compromise was dead anyway, this was a pointless provocation. The South was delighted, but the North was now convinced that the Supreme Court had been subverted by a slave conspiracy.
|Slave kidnap poster, Boston 1851|
|Harriet Beecher Stowe|
|General Winfield Scott enters Mexico City|
13 September 1847
|The flag of the Republic of Texas|
the 'Lone Star Republic',
officially adopted 1839